What are the Properties of Aluminium?

16 min read
properties of aluminium

Properties of Aluminium

Properties of aluminium can divide into the main two types. They are:

  1.  Physical properties of aluminium and
  2. Chemical properties of aluminium.

Firstly, let’s focus on What is Aluminium as an element.

What is Aluminium?

Aluminium as an element
Aluminium as an element

Under properties of aluminium, Aluminium is the 13th element in the periodic table. Because of that, the atomic number of aluminium is 13.

So, The electron configuration of aluminium is 1s22s22p63s23p1.

Do you like to know more about electron configuration?

Then check this out, Very informative article electron configurations of elements.

In addition, Aluminium has only one isotope, of mass number 27.

Aluminium metal


The chemical atomic weight of aluminium is 26.98u.

Above all, Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust (7.8%).

Abundance of Aluminium chemical and physical properties
Abundance of Aluminium

Aluminium doe not occur free in nature. Therefore, They are in Oxide, Hydrated oxide, Fluoride, Silicate nature.

Now we have the basic knowledge about aluminium as an element. So, its time to focus on the properties.

Firstly, let’s talk about the physical properties of aluminium.

Physical properties of Aluminium

Under physical properties of aluminium, aluminium is a metal with a bluish tinge and a brilliant lustre. Also, The colour of this metal is silver-white.

It soon dulls by the formation of a superficial layer of oxide.

Also, The melting point of aluminium is 6580C.

Aluminium has a density of 2.7 g/cm³.

Moreover, It is ductile and malleable. But it is not so tenacious as brass, copper, or steel.

Also, It ranks with the best conductors of electricity, being surpassed only by silver, copper, and gold.

Aluminium can weld, cast, or spun, but it can solder only with difficulty and then by the use of a special solder.

Most importantly,

Aluminium is one of the lightest metals on earth.

Most importantly, It is the lightest metal that can employ on a large scale for mechanical and constructional purposes.

Because of the above physical properties of aluminium, aluminium is is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It uses electric cables as well.

So let’s talk about the chemical properties of aluminium as well.

Chemical properties of Aluminium

Chemical properties of aluminium with the oxide layer

chemical properties of Aluminium oxide
Aluminium oxide

It takes a high polish but soon becomes covered with a thin layer of aluminium oxide. This gives it a slightly bluish tint.

The colour of the oxide resembles that of the metal itself so much that many people are likely to get the idea that aluminium does not tarnish at all. The oxide layer which forms is adherent and impervious. Hence aluminium is a self-protective metal.

Oxide layer
Oxide layer

Reaction properties of Aluminium,

Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid attack aluminium readily and form salts of the respective acids. So, Nitric acid hardly affects aluminium at all. Also, Saltwater corrodes it rapidly, especially when it is hot. Such a strong base as sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium forming sodium aluminate and liberating hydrogen.

2Al + 6NaOH → 2Na3AlO3 + 3H2

Chemical properties of aluminium with air and oxygen

Aluminium with Oxygen reaction properties
Aluminium with Oxygen

Aluminium acquires a very thin layer of oxide when exposed to air, and this protects it from further attack. However, It is little changed by heating up to about 7000C. But at about 10000C, takes fire and forms its oxide, with some nitride.

4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3

2Al + N2 → 2AlN

The nitride liberates ammonia when acted upon by water.

AlN + 3H2O → Al(OH)3 + NH3


Under chemical properties of aluminium, it burns readily if heated in oxygen and gives a brilliant white light. So, This utilises in flashlight photography. Aluminium foil in a bulb containing oxygen ignite by electrical heating.

Aluminium with mercury

So, If aluminium alloy with mercury (by dipping it into mercuric chloride solution), a superficial oxide layer cannot cohere.

Properties of the aluminium oxide layer

Aluminium will then oxidise rapidly in air, forming thin flakes of the oxide at ordinary temperature.

This alloy will also attack water with liberation of hydrogen. Normally, the oxide layer protects aluminium from reaction with water.

Chemical properties of aluminium with acids

With Hydrochloric acid

Aluminium with Hydrochloric acid reaction properties
Aluminium with Hydrochloric acid

Aluminium attacks by hydrochloric acid. Also, the action is more vigorous as the acid becomes hotter and more concentrated. As a result, Hydrogen is evolved, and aluminium chloride left in solution.

2Al + 6H3O+ 2Al3+ + 3H2 + 6H2O

With Sulphuric acid

So, When we discuss the properties of aluminium with sulphuric acid, Dilute sulphuric acid does not attack aluminium. This rather surprising difference probably arises from the insolubility of the oxide layer n this acid.

Also, Hot concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with the metal with the liberation of Sulphur dioxide and formation of aluminium sulphate.

2Al + 6H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O + 3SO2

Chemical properties of aluminium with Nitric acid

Under the chemical properties of aluminium with nitric acid, Nitric acid is almost without action on aluminium at any concentration, and even when heated. Therefore, This again is surprising in such an electropositive metal and is in marked contrast to the vigorous reaction of nitric acid with magnesium and zinc.


It probably explains by the insolubility of the oxide layer in this acid.

With Aqueous caustic alkalis

Bench (2N) caustic soda solution, added (cold) to aluminium powder, also, it develops a very violent action with marked temperature rise. Under chemical properties, aluminium foil fives a similar, but much milder, reaction and will probably require heat to start it. Finally, Hydrogen evolved and sodium aluminate left in solution.

2Al + 2OH+ 2H2O 2AlO2 + 3H2


Also, Caustic potash behaves similarly according to its chemical properties with aluminium.

Chemical properties of aluminium with non-metals

Aluminium will combine, when heated, with chlorine, nitrogen, Sulphur and carbon, forming AlCl3, AlN, Al2S3 and Al4C3.

Uses of aluminium according to its Properties

In Aluminium wires

Because of the physical properties of aluminium, to some extent aluminium uses instead of copper for electrical conductors. Also, It is only about 0.6 as good a conductor as copper but is less than one third as dense. Hence wires may be made larger to increase conductivity, and still, put less strain on the supporting poles or towers.

Aluminium flashlight bulbs

Aluminium flashlight bulbs for photography are more convenient than the old flashlight powders. Because, These bulbs contain fine aluminium wire and enough oxygen to burn the wire completely. The wire burns with an intensely brilliant flame when ignited by the hot filament. So, These happen Because of the properties of aluminium.

As powdered aluminium

Also, the Powdered aluminium use as paint, particularly to protect the surface of iron in the silvering of radiators.

Uses of Aluminium foil as its properties of aluminium

Aluminium foil used for wrapping candy bars, cheese and other foods, as well as s heat insulator. It is also used for making various novelty articles, and for certain parts of aeroplanes and automobiles.

Properties of aluminium for cooking utensils

In addition, Aluminium is very popular for cooking utensils. Therefore, According to the physical properties of aluminium, It is light and ductile, a good conductor of heat.


So, It does not tarnish noticeably and is rather easily kept clean. Also, Spun aluminium is easily bent and will melt in a gas flame if the utensil “boils dry”.

Conclusion of properties of Aluminium

So, Finally, From this article, we covered up all the properties of aluminium. Also, the Properties of aluminium with its applications as well.

Likewise, we have covered up the Properties of Calcium as well. So, Have a look.

What are 5 physical properties of aluminium?

colour & lustre
freezing point
boiling point & melting point
density & hardness

How much aluminium is in the world?

Consisting of about 8.2% of the Earth’s crust.

What is the number of neutrons in aluminium?

14 neutrons.

What country uses the most aluminum?


Is aluminium a pure element?


Is aluminum foil an alloy?

Aluminum foil is made from an aluminum alloy.

What is the mass number of aluminum 27?

26.981538 g/mol

What is the number of electrons in aluminum?


What is the number of protons in aluminum?


Is aluminum an isotope?

Aluminium or aluminum (13Al) has 22 known isotopes from 22Al to 43Al and 4 known isomers .

Aluminium metal or non metal?


Load More Related Articles
Load More By ScienceTute
Load More In Chemistry

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Check Also

Preparation of Ethyl bromide

There are main 2 methods for the Preparation of Ethyl bromide. These two are the most suit…