ChemistryWhat are common Compounds of Silver? By ScienceTute 16 min read Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Reddit Share on Pinterest Share on Tumblr Contents hide 1 The electron configuration of silver 2 Compounds of Silver 3 Silver Oxide 3.1 Preparation of Silver oxide Compound 3.2 Silver oxide compound as an Oxidising agent 3.3 Properties of Silver oxide compound 3.4 Decomposition of Silver oxide 4 Silver Halide 4.1 Preparation of Silver halide compounds 4.2 Properties of Silver halide compounds 4.3 Properties of Silver Chloride compound 4.4 Uses of Silver halide compounds 5 Silver Fluoride – AgF 6 Silver Nitrate 6.1 Preparation of Silver nitrate compound 6.2 The action of heat in Silver nitrate compounds 6.3 Uses of Silver nitrate 7 Silver Carbonate – Ag2CO3 8 Silver Sulfate compounds – Ag2SO4 9 Silver Sulphide – Ag2S 10 Silver Cyanide – AgCN 10.1 Summary The electron configuration of silverCompounds of silver form because of the electron configuration of the silver atom. The electronic structure of the silver atom is normally 2, 8, 18, 18, 1. The single outer electron may use for electrovalent combination, leaving the argentous ion, Ag+, with electron structure, 2, 8, 18, 18.Do you like to know more about electron configuration?Then check this out, Very informative article electron configurations of elements.Compounds of SilverIt may also use as one electron of a shared pair in covalent combination. Silver Compounds so formed are also called argentous. The argentous ion can participate in both cationic and anionic complexes.examples of these will find in the following paragraphs.Silver also exerts divalency, but only rarely. In this case, the electron structure changes to 2, 8, 18, 17, 2 and the corresponding silver ion Ag2+ that has the electron structure 2, 8, 18, 17.Silver oxide, AgO and Silver fluoride, AgF2, are known as some complex organic derivatives or argentic silver, but all are unimportant.So, Firstly, let’s have a look at the most important compound of silver, Silver oxide.Silver OxideSilver oxidePreparation of Silver oxide CompoundMethod 01Silver oxide is the main compound among the compounds of silver. Silver oxide precipitate as brown solid by the addition of a caustic alkali solution of silver nitrate.2Ag+ + 2OH– → Ag2O + H2OThe precipitate is probably hydrated to some extent but, if filtered, washed and dried at about 800C. This silver compound obtained as a black anhydrous powder.Notice that caustic alkali solutions usually precipitate metallic hydroxide, silver hydroxide never produced in the above conditions, is too unstable. It said to be produced by alcoholic solutions of the above reagents at 300C.Method 02The addition of a little dilute aqueous ammonia to silver nitrate solution precipitates silver oxide as a brown solid.2Ag+ + 2OH– → Ag2O + H2OAddition of an excess of ammonia then dissolves the precipitate by the formulation of a cationic complex between molecules of NH3 and the Silver ion, Ag+.Ag+ + 2NH4OH ⇌ [Ag(NH3)2]+ + 2H2OIf left to stand exposed to air, a solution of silver oxide in excess of ammonia slowly deposits a black powder, probably the nitride, Ag3N. It is explosive when dry and known as fulminating silver.So, Its time to discuss the properties of silver oxide compound.Silver oxide compound as an Oxidising agentA solution of silver oxide compound In excess of aqueous ammonia, known as ammoniacal silver oxide (or nitrate), is a useful oxidising agent, especially with organic compounds. If shaken with acetaldehyde in a test tube and heated slowly, then the solution deposits a silver mirror on the side of the test tube. The aldehyde oxidises to acetic acid, which forms its salt, ammonium acetate. The reaction is,Ag2O + CH3CHO + NH4OH → 2Ag + CH3COONH4 + H2OProperties of Silver oxide compoundSilver oxide is quite a strong base. It is slightly soluble in water, and the solution is alkaline. Consequently, silver does not form basic salts such as are common in cupric chemistry. Cupric oxide is a much weaker base. In addition,Silver oxide and water (moist silver oxide) use as a mild hydrolysing agent in organic chemistry in cases where aqueous caustic alkalis are too vigorous. Moist silver oxide, heated under reflux with an alkyl halide, will convert it to the corresponding alcohol.2RI + Ag2O + H2O → 2ROH + 2AgIDecomposition of Silver oxideSilver will oxidise slowly in the air if heated to 1000C-1200C. but the oxide decomposes again completely at 3000C.4Ag + O2⇌ 2Ag2OSilver Halide Preparation of Silver halide compounds Silver chloride, AgCl, Silver bromide, AgBr, and silver iodide, AgI, are all insoluble in water and precipitated by the addition of a solution of soluble chloride (NaCl), bromide (KBr) or iodide (KI) to a solution of silver nitrate. If required pure, all should protect fro sunlight, filtered off, washed with hot, distilled water and dried at about 1200C.According to Sidgwick, the chloride and bromide are electrovalent compounds and the iodide mixed, electrovalent and covalent.Cl– + Ag+ → AgCl↓ I– + Ag+ → AgI ↓Ag++ Br– → AgBr ↓Properties of Silver halide compoundsThese compounds show a typical halogen gradation in the properties summarised in the table below. Silver halidesProperties of Silver Chloride compoundSilver chlorideSilver chloride compound is readily soluble in aqueous solutions of ammonia, potassium cyanide and sodium thiosulfate. In all these cases, complex ions form (as below) which reduce the concentration of the Ag+ ion to a pint at which the solubility product of silver chloride can no longer reach so that it remains precipitated.Ag+ + 2NH4OH ⇌ [Ag(NH3)2] + 2H2OAg+ + 2CN–⇌ Ag(CN)2–2Ag+ + 3S2O32-⇌ Ag2(S2O3)4-Silver chloride can reduce to metallic silver in several ways, such as,01.Heating in a current of dry hydrogen2AgCl + H2 → 2Ag + 2HCl02.Fusion with sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate4Ag+ + 2CO32-→ 4Ag + 2CO2 + O2The soluble matter then extracted by hot water. The silver filtered out, washed well by hot water and dried.Uses of Silver halide compoundsSilver chloride uses in making printing out papers in photography. Silver bromide uses in making the light-sensitive emulsion fro photographic plates, films and gaslight papers.Silver halide in photographySilver Fluoride – AgFThis handle is markedly different from the three considered above by being readily soluble in water. It makes by dissolving silver oxide in hydrofluoric acid and evaporating at very low pressure. Crystals of the hydrate, AgF.H2O, obtained.Silver NitratePreparation of Silver nitrate compoundSilver nitrate compounds made by dissolving silver with heat in moderately concentrated nitric acid. The main reaction is,3Ag + 4H(NO3) → 3AgNO3 + 2H2O + NOSilver nitrateExcess silver should be available to reduce the concentration of the remaining nitric acid to a very low value. After filtration, the liquid greatly reduces in bulk by evaporation. On cooling, which can filter, wash with caution (they are very soluble) and dry.These crystals are exceptionally soluble in water.The action of heat in Silver nitrate compoundsAt 4500C, silver nitrate compounds decompose producing the nitrite.2AgNO3→ 2AgNO2 + O2At about 7000C, they decompose, leaving a bright, white mass of metallic silver, with the evolution of nitrogen dioxide and oxygen.2AgNO3→ 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2Uses of Silver nitrateIt melts at 2180C and can be cast into lunar caustic sticks, used in medicine as a cautery.Also,It uses in marking ink for linen. The organic matter reduces the nitrate to a very lasting black deposit of metallic silver.Silver nitrate much use in the photographic industry in preparing the emulsions for plates.Silver Carbonate – Ag2CO3Silver carbonateSilver carbonate is a pale yellow solid, precipitated by sodium carbonate solution from silver nitrate solution.2Ag+ + CO32-→ Ag2CO3Furthermore,When heated as a dry solid, it decomposes. It leaves a bright, white deposit of metallic silver, liberating carbon dioxide and oxygen.Ag2CO3→ 4Ag + 2CO2 + O2Silver Sulfate compounds – Ag2SO4Silver sulfateThis salt form when silver heat with concentrated sulphuric acid. But it is best made, as a precipitate, by mixing concentrated solutions of silver nitrate and sodium sulphate.2Ag+ + SO42-→ Ag2SO4↓It is sparingly soluble in water.Silver Sulphide – Ag2SSilver sulphideThis compound occurs as argentite. Apart from this, it is notable mainly as the cause of tarnishing of silver in an atmosphere containing traces of gaseous Sulphur compounds (SO2 or H2S). Silver sulphide can make by heating silver with Sulphur or hydrogen sulphide, or better, by precipitating it from silver nitrate solution by hydrogen sulphide.Silver Cyanide – AgCNWhen potassium cyanide solution add-in small amount to silver nitrate solution, a white precipitate of silver cyanide is thrown down.Silver cyanideAg+ + CN–→ AgCNThe addition of an excess of potassium cyanide solution causes the precipitate to dissolve by the formation of the complex silver cyanide ion.AgCN + CN–→ Ag(CN)2–SummaryFinally, From this article, we covered up all the compounds of silver and their properties and used as well.Likewise, we have covered up the compounds of Strontium, Barium and Calcium as well.